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Journal of Applied Physics Collection (168 Books)


 
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Journal of Applied Physics : Self-doping and partial oxidation of ...

By: Sebastian Scholz, Qiang Huang, Michael Thomschke, Selina Olthof, Philipp Sebastian et al

Description: The performance of organic electronic devices, such as organic light emitting diodes, transistors, or organic solar cells, depends critically on the chemical composition of the metal/organic and organic/metal interfaces which inject or extract charges into or from the device. By combining a number of techniques, such as x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) sputter depth profiling, XPS itself, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and laser desorption/ionization...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Detailed analysis of the microwave-de...

By: K. Lauer, A. Laades, H. Übensee, H. Metzner, and A. Lawerenz

Description: An approach to evaluate the microwave-detected photoconductance decay (MWPCD) is developed, which allows to extract the minority carrier lifetime as a function of the excess carrier density from a single MWPCD measurement. The method is shown to be applicable to thin (w≲200 μm) silicon wafers with low minority carrier recombination at the surfaces and bulk lifetimes in the range of about 1–100 μs. Comparison of the MWPCD results with minority carrier lifetim...

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Journal of Applied Physics : High-performance C60 n-channel organi...

By: Xiao-Hong Zhang and Bernard Kippelen

Description: High-performance C60 organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have been obtained by engineering the essential electrode/semiconductor and dielectric/semiconductor interfaces. By using calcium (Ca) as the source and drain electrodes, the width-normalized contact resistance (RCW) at the electrode/semiconductor interface for devices with channel lengths ranging from 200 down to 25 μm could be reduced to a constant value of 2 kΩ cm at a gate-source voltage (VGS)...

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Journal of Applied Physics : N/I buffer layer for substrate microc...

By: T. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, M. Python et al

Description: The influence of the substrate surface morphology on the performance of microcrystalline silicon solar cells in the substrate or n-i-p (nip) configuration is studied in this paper. The experiments are carried out on glass substrates coated with naturally textured films of ZnO deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition which serves as backcontact and as template for the light trapping texture. The film surface morphology can be modified with a plasma...

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Journal of Applied Physics : The role of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythi...

By: Sebastian Bange, Andriy Kuksov, Dieter Neher, Antje Vollmer, Norbert Koch et al

Description: The authors study the role of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in determining the transient and steady-state operation of a blue-emitting polymer light-emitting diode. Combining the results from photoemission spectroscopy, time-of-flight photocurrent measurements, and studies on hole-only devices reveals a significant barrier for the injection of holes into the polymer. Simulations with a numerical ...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Effect of compensation and of metalli...

By: Joris Libal, Sara Novaglia, Maurizio Acciarri, Simona Binetti, Roman Petres et al

Description: In this work we present a study of a p-type Czochralski-grown Si ingot which was grown using 10% solar grade silicon (SoG-Si). As the SoG-Si contains a relatively high concentration of impurities including phosphorus, the electrical properties of the as-grown wafers from this ingot are affected by both the compensating dopants and other impurities. Measurements of the minority charge carrier lifetime in the as-grown material reveal very low values (4–8 μs). ...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Suppressing random dopant-induced flu...

By: Petru Andrei and Liviu Oniciuc

Description: This article introduces a robust and computationally efficient technique for the design of fluctuation-resistant structures (fault-tolerant) semiconductor devices. This technique can be applied to the computation of the doping profiles that minimize the intrinsic variations in various parameters induced by random dopant fluctuations. The technique is based on the evaluation of doping sensitivity functions, which are defined as elements of the space adjoint t...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Analysis of the acoustoelectric behav...

By: Cinzia Caliendo

Description: Piezoelectric AlN films, 1.3–6.2 μm thick, have been grown on bare and metallized Al2O3(0001) substrates by reactive radio-frequency-sputtering technique at 180 °C. The films were uniform, stress-free, highly c-axis oriented normal to the surface, and extremely adhesive to the substrates. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay lines, showing harmonic modes with operating frequencies up to about 2.44 GHz, were obtained just using conventional optical lithography a...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Optically driven fluid flow along arb...

By: Franz M. Weinert and Dieter Braun

Description: We show how fluid can be moved by a laser scanning microscope. Selected parts of a fluid film are pumped along the path of a moving warm spot which is generated by the repetitive motion of an infrared laser focus. With this technique, we remotely drive arbitrary two-dimensional fluid flow patterns with a resolution of 2 μm. Pump speeds of 150 μm/s are reached in water with a maximal temperature increase in the local spot of 10 K. Various experiments confirm ...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Spatio-temporal Talbot phenomenon usi...

By: J. S. Gómez-Díaz, A. Alvarez-Melcon, S. Gupta, and C. Caloz

Description: A spatial-temporal Talbot phenomenon, based on metamaterial composite right/left-handed (CRLH) leaky-wave antennas (LWAs), is presented. This phenomenon, reported in the microwave domain, is based on the combination of the conventional spatial monochromatic Talbot effect and the transient (polychromatic) character of the pulse radiation phenomenon in the LWA structure. When the elements of a periodic CRLH LWA array are fed simultaneously by an input pulse, t...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Ultrasonic generation and rotation of...

By: Zhi Wen Tan, Su Gui Gisela Teo, and Junhui Hu

Description: We show that a hypodermic needle can generate and rotate a small droplet of water around its needle tip when the hypodermic needle is mechanically driven by an acoustic needle. The water droplet increases in size with the driving time and begins to rotate around the tip of the hypodermic needle when the diameter of the droplet is large enough. The rotating droplet falls off when its diameter is larger than a critical value of several millimeters. For a given...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Effective medium theory for strongly ...

By: P. Loschialpo, D. Smith, and D. Zabetakis

Description: A theoretical model has been developed for predicting the reflectivity of thin planar surfaces imbedded with long conductive fibers. Intersecting fibers in the plane form larger conducting clusters. The model includes this effect, which serves to increase the reflectivity. Magnetic coupling between the fibers is also included. This coupling is found to be particularly important at higher frequencies. Test panels were made using a direct write process to imbe...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Sharp reduction of the secondary elec...

By: M. Pivi, F. K. King, R. E. Kirby, T. O. Raubenheimer, G. Stupakov et al

Description: The effect of an artificially enhanced rough surface on the secondary electron yield (SEY) was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Analytical studies on triangular and rectangular grooved surfaces show the connection between the characteristic parameters of a given geometry to the SEY reduction. The effect of a strong magnetic field is also discussed. SEY of grooved samples have been measured and the results agree with particle simulations us...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Parametric analysis for a miniature l...

By: Y. C. Shiah, Hong-Ching Her, Jin H. Huang, and Brant Huang

Description: To play melodious sound, a miniature loudspeaker in a cellular phone needs to generate a wide smooth sound-pressure-level distribution over the midfrequency spectrum ranging from 600 Hz to 10 kHz. This paper reports on a parametric study on the effects of various design parameters on the sound-pressure-level distribution. The electromechanoacoustical analogous approach has been applied to simulate the sound-pressure level. Experiments have been conducted to ...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Thermal noise of microcantilevers in ...

By: L. Bellon

Description: We present a simple theoretical framework to describe the thermal noise of a microscopic mechanical beam in a viscous fluid: we use the Sader approach to describe the effect of the surrounding fluid (added mass and viscous drag) and the fluctuation dissipation theorem for each flexural modes of the system to derive a general expression for the power spectrum density of fluctuations. This prediction is compared with an experimental measurement on a commercial...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Extrusion formation mechanism on sili...

By: Ruling Chen, Jianbin Luo, Dan Guo, and Xinchun Lu

Description: Molecular dynamic simulation is applied in analyzing the deformation of silicon surface under the impact of large silica cluster. The mechanism of such a deformation is largely different from the cases of ion bombardment and indentation. With the impact of large silica cluster, the silicon surface is extruded due to the combinational effects of thermal spread, phase transformation, and crystallographic slip. It is found that thermal spread is the most signif...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Observation of band bending of metal/...

By: K. Kakushima, K. Okamoto, K. Tachi, J. Song, S. Sato et al

Description: Band bendings of Si substrates have been observed using hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. With a capability of collecting photoelectrons generated as deep as 40 nm, the binding energy shift in a core level caused by the potential profile at the surface of the substrate results in a spectrum broadening. The broadening is found to be significant when heavily doped substrates are used owing to its steep potential profile. The surface potential of the subst...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Study of laser excited vibration of s...

By: Yaqin Song, Bernard Cretin, D. M. Todorovic, and Pascal Vairac

Description: In this paper an interferometric setup called “thermoelastic microscopy” has been used to measure the vibration response of the semiconductor cantilevers under modulated laser thermal source. The small vibration amplitude has been detected well below 10 pm magnitude in accurate adjustment conditions. The results showed that experimental responses have a good agreement with the theoretical ones. Also from the analysis we could conclude that the signal amplitu...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Nanometric size effect on Ge diffusio...

By: A. Portavoce, G. Chai, L. Chow, and J. Bernardini

Description: The nanosize effect on Ge diffusion (850 ≤ T ≤ 1000 °C) in polycrystalline Si layers is investigated. The Ge diffusion coefficients in microcrystalline and nanocrystalline Si layers made of 30 μm and 40 nm wide grains, respectively, are measured and compared. In the microcrystalline Si layer, the Ge diffusion coefficient in micrograin boundaries is measured using a conventional analytical solution of Fick’s equations corresponding to the Fisher model. In the...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Specific multiple-scattering process ...

By: Ying Cheng and XiaoJun Liu

Description: It was qualitatively demonstrated through finite-element full-wave simulations that acoustic cloak can be constructed by using concentric multilayered structure with alternating homogeneous isotropic materials [ Y. Cheng et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151913 (2008) ]. Here we present a sequential in-depth analysis of the proposed cloak by means of the multiple-scattering algorithms. Calculated pressure fields demonstrate that the cloak possesses low-reflectio...

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