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Journal of Applied Physics Collection (168 Books)


 
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Journal of Applied Physics : Ultraviolet light in glow discharges

By: Loic Ledernez, Fethi Olcaytug, Hirotsugu Yasuda, and Gerald Urban

Description: The use of ultraviolet light has prevailed in investigation of gas breakdown phenomena since Townsend developed the model of gas breakdown discharge carrying his name because ultraviolet light creates the supposedly necessary electrons in the interelectrode space. However, the ultraviolet light influences the gas breakdown characteristics. Therefore, the extent of the influence of the ultraviolet light on the prebreakdown current, the breakdown current, the ...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Characterization of a controlled plas...

By: A. Flacco, A. Guemnie-Tafo, R. Nuter, M. Veltcheva, D. Batani et al

Description: We present experimental and numerical results on the formation of a controlled plasma density gradient in front of a solid target irradiated with a subpicosecond, moderate intensity laser pulse. Interferometry with femtosecond probe is used to map the temporal evolution of the spatial density distribution of the generated plasma. Experimental results are found to be in good agreement with 1D1/2 hydrodynamic simulations. Moreover, these numerical simulations ...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Probing the plasma chemistry in a mic...

By: Jie Ma, James C. Richley, Michael N. R. Ashfold, and Yuri A. Mankelevich

Description: Absolute column densities of C2(a) and CH radicals and H(n = 2) atoms have been measured in a diamond growing microwave reactor operating with hydrocarbon/Ar/H2 gas mixtures as functions of height (z) above the substrate surface and process conditions. The monitored species are each localized in the hot plasma region, where Tgas ∼ 3000 K, and their respective column densities are each reproduced, quantitatively, by two-dimensional (r,z) modeling of the plasm...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Decomposition of methylene blue in wa...

By: Monica Magureanu, Daniela Piroi, Nicolae Bogdan Mandache, and Vasile Parvulescu

Description: The decomposition of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution was investigated using a dielectric barrier discharge in coaxial configuration operated in pulsed regime. The MB solution (volume = 300 ml, concentration = 50 mg/l) contained in a reservoir was circulated by a pump and made to flow as a film over the surface of the inner electrode of the plasma reactor. The best results were obtained when the discharge was operated in oxygen. The conversion of MB r...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Influence of a preplasma on electron ...

By: R. Nuter, L. Gremillet, P. Combis, M. Drouin, E. Lefebvre et al

Description: Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are performed to study laser-induced proton acceleration from solid-density targets in the presence of laser-generated preformed plasma. The preplasma generation and hydrodynamics are described using a one-dimensional Lagrangian code. The electron acceleration mechanism is shown to depend on the plasma scale length, exhibiting a transition from × heating to standing wave heating as smoother and smoother profiles a...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Energy and angle spectra of sputtered...

By: P. S. Krstic, C. O. Reinhold, and S. J. Stuart

Description: We study the translational, vibrational, and rotational energy spectra of atoms and molecules reflected or sputtered from deuterated amorphous carbon surfaces by impact of low-energy (1–30 eV) deuterium atoms. Both the rovibrational and translational energies of sputtered deuterium molecules are found to be close to 1 eV over the whole impact energy range, with approximate equipartition between rotational and vibrational modes, particularly at the higher imp...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Chaotic characteristics of corona dis...

By: Xiangyu Tan, Qiaogen Zhang, Xiuhuan Wang, Fu Sun, Wei Zha et al

Description: A point-plane electrode system in atmospheric air is established to investigate the mechanism of the corona discharge. By using this system, the current pulses of the corona discharges under the 50 Hz ac voltage are measured using partial discharge (PD) measurement instrument and constitute the point-plane voltage-current (V-I) characteristic equation together with the voltage. Then, this paper constructs the nonlinear circuit model and differential equation...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Al-doped ZnO nanocrystals

By: Pratibha Kadam, Chitra Agashe, and Shailaja Mahamuni

Description: Al3+-doped ZnO nanocrystals were differently obtained by wet chemical and an electrochemical route. An increase in forbidden gap due to change in crystal size and also due to Al3+ doping in ZnO is critically analyzed. The Moss–Burstein type shift in Al3+-doped ZnO nanocrystals provides an evidence of successful Al3+ doping in ZnO nanocrystals. The possibility of varying the carrier concentration in ZnO nanocrystals is the indirect implication of the present investigations.

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Journal of Applied Physics : The role of implantation-induced poin...

By: R. Kögler, X. Ou, W. Skorupa, and W. Möller

Description: The excess of implantation-induced point defects controls the oxygen redistribution in silicon during a high-temperature treatment, such as in separation-by-implanted-oxygen, and defines the energy-dose window for the formation of a perfect homogeneous and planar buried oxide layer. Quantitative relations are given between the distribution of the initially generated excess defects and the finally formed oxide layer. Implantation-induced defects also explain ...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Lattice contraction during amorphizat...

By: C. Suryanarayana and Satyajeet Sharma

Description: Amorphization has been achieved in blended elemental Fe-based multicomponent alloy powders by mechanical alloying. The effect of Nb addition to the Fe42Ni28Zr10−xNbxB20 alloy in the composition range of 1–6 at. % Nb has been investigated and it was shown that the glass-forming ability (GFA) of the alloys, defined as the milling time required to produce an amorphous phase, improved with Nb addition. The improvement was not regular; the highest GFA was achieve...

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Journal of Applied Physics : X-ray in-plane scattering investigati...

By: L. Horák, V. Holý, C. R. Staddon, N. R. S. Farley, S. V. Novikov et al

Description: An x-ray method is described for the structure characterization of semiordered GaN nanorods. In contrast to other works based on synchrotron radiation, the method uses a standard x-ray laboratory equipment so that it is suitable for a rapid characterization of the nanorods in a technological laboratory. The method uses a grazing-incidence diffraction setup and it makes it possible to determine the mean size of the rods and their angular twist with respect to...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Thermal phonon resonance observed wit...

By: Yasuo Minami and Keiji Sakai

Description: We observed resonating thermal phonons in a cavity. The combination of our millisecond Brillouin scattering technique and this phonon resonance observation enables the determination of phonon velocity with an accuracy of 10−4 within an observation time of 30 ms. In the experiment, phonon propagation in a confined space filled with liquid toluene was observed. The observed phonon resonance spectra agree with theoretical predictions.

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Journal of Applied Physics : Nanoindentation-induced plastic defor...

By: Z. H. Sun and K. W. White

Description: The plastic deformation and fracture behavior of individual a- and c-domains of (001) oriented BaTiO3 single crystal are studied with nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy. Consistent with previous observations in rocksalt and perovskite crystals, square-shaped pileups directly surround the residual indents, and rosette arm patterns extend beyond these pileups. These features have been ascribed to dislocation activities on the {110}〈10〉 slip systems in...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Microstructure and crystal defects in...

By: J. R. Wang, Y. Z. Zhang, Z. Z. Ye, J. G. Lu, H. P. He et al

Description: Dislocations in the ZnMgO pleated nanosheets were observed from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Burgers vector was identified as 1/3〈113〉 from the Fourier filtered TEM images. Raman spectra revealed that there were microstructure defects in the ZnMgO nanosheets with the increasing Mg content. The incorporation of the Mg impurities in the ZnMgO nanosheets may promote the congregation of oxygen vacancies and thus facilitate the gene...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Blue-green upconversion emission in Z...

By: E. de la Rosa, D. Solis, L. A. Díaz-Torres, P. Salas, C. Angeles-Chavez et al

Description: Strong blue-green cooperative upconversion emission was observed under infrared excitation in 70 nm average crystallite size ZrO2:Yb3+ nanocrystals prepared by sol-gel process. The structural characterization was performed by x-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy suggesting that crystalline phase of nanoparticles is controlled by active ion concentration. The cooperative absorption coefficient η ∼ 2.5×10−22 is four orders of ...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Mechanical behavior of stressed films...

By: Conal E. Murray and K. L. Saenger

Description: The effects of stressed thin films on substrates that possess anisotropic elasticity have been measured and modeled. Substrate curvature induced by a uniform, stressed film will be axisymmetric for substrates possessing greater than twofold in-plane symmetry, and anisotropic for twofold symmetric substrates. For a (011) Si substrate, the difference between the curvature along the 〈110〉 and 〈100〉 principal axes varies by approximately 47%. A simple, analytica...

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Journal of Applied Physics : In situ phase transformation and defo...

By: Lowell Miyagi, Martin Kunz, Jason Knight, James Nasiatka, Marco Voltolini et al

Description: With a membrane based mechanism to allow for pressure change in a sample in a radial diffraction diamond anvil cell and simultaneous infrared laser heating, it is now possible to investigate texture changes during deformation and phase transformations over a wide range of temperature-pressure conditions. The device is used to study bcc (α), fcc (γ), and hcp (ε) iron. In bcc iron, room temperature compression generates a texture characterized by (100) and (11...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Reflection chromaticity of multilayer...

By: E. M. Nascimento, I. N. de Oliveira, and M. L. Lyra

Description: We investigate the chromaticity of the light reflected by multilayered structures containing cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs). We considered a single-pitched ChLC multilayered system with quasiperiodic Fibonaccian phase defects as well as an alternate sequence of single-pitched ChLC and isotropic dielectric layers. Using the Berreman 4×4 matrix formalism, we numerically obtain the reflection spectrum and the chromaticity diagram of these structures. The a...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Structure and photoinduced volume cha...

By: R. Lukács, J. Hegedüs, and S. Kugler

Description: Atomic scale computer simulations on structures and photoinduced volume changes of flatly and obliquely deposited amorphous selenium (a-Se) films have been carried out in order to understand how the properties of chalcogenide glasses are influenced by their preparation method. Obliquely deposited a-Se thin films contain more coordination defects and larger voids than the flatly deposited ones. To model the photoinduced volume changes the electron excitation ...

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Journal of Applied Physics : Simulation of electromechanical respo...

By: Simon Ching-kin Chow and Veng-cheong Lo

Description: The effect of static electric field on mechanical and dielectric properties of a lead zirconate titanate (PbZrxTi1−xO3) piezoceramic sample driven by an alternating compressive stress has been experimentally investigated by Zhou et al. [ J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 867 (2005) ]. Numerical simulation for this experimental result using two-dimensional four-state Potts model is presented in this article. Upon polarization switching, the dipole in the perovskite cell...

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